- Full development of its major oilfields could make Kazakhstan one of the world's top 5 oil producers within the next decade. With production of 1.54 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2009, Kazakhstan is already a major producer, and continued development of its giant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Kashagan fields is expected to at least double its current production by 2019.
- Kazakhstan's sector of the Caspian Sea is believed to hold several other major oil and natural gas deposits as yet unexploited.
- A recently renamed Ministry of Oil and Gas is responsible for developing the legislative and regulatory framework, as well as developing strategy for the oil sector. National oil and gas company, Kazmunaigaz (KMG), was created in 2002 to represent the state's interests in Kazakhstan's oil and gas industry. Rising oil production has been the result of an influx of foreign investment into Kazakhstan's oil sector since 1991. However, KMG plays a growing role in oil and gas sector development as the government now reserves a majority stake for KMG in all new projects and joint ventures.
- Kazakhstan's Law on Subsoil and Subsoil Use governs the transfer of subsoil use rights and was amended in 2005 to give the state the basis to exercise pre-emption rights on any oil assets put up for sale in the country, allowing KMG to buy them and thus secure stakes in several of the country's biggest projects. The law was amended again in 2007 to allow the state to make retrospective changes to any existing oil contracts or even break the contracts if they are deemed a threat to the country's security. The June 2010 amendment establishes strict local content requirements for oil and gas contracts.
- In early 2008, the government announced that no more production-sharing agreements (PSAs) would be awarded, and joint ventures are now the most common type of investment. The Kazakh government's decision to offer exploration blocks to KMG first, letting the state firm negotiate with potential partners rather than issuing blocks via an open licensing process, initially dampened private oil company interest.
- However, KMG signed exploration agreements with Total and Statoil in June 2010 for 2 offshore Caspian blocks. State-to-state deals with state-owned oil companies, particularly Russian and Chinese, are prevalent. In August 2010, the government announced the re-introduction of oil export duties, first introduced in 2008 and then suspended in January 2009. This affects all oil exporters operating in Kazakhstan.
- Kazakhstan's proven oil reserves were estimated at 30 billion barrels by the Oil and Gas Journal in January 2010.
- The country's main oil reserves are located in the western part of the country, where the 5 largest onshore oil fields, Tengiz, Karachaganak, Aktobe, Mangistau, and Uzen, are located.
- These onshore fields account for about half of current proven reserves, while the offshore Kashagan and Kurmangazy oil fields, in Kazakhstan's sector of the Caspian Sea, are estimated to contain at least 14 billion barrels.
- Kazakhstan's oil production reached 1.54 million barrels per day (Mmbbl/d) in 2009, more than double the level of a decade earlier, while domestic oil consumption averaged 241,000 bbl/d. The 8 largest currently producing fields are located onshore: 5 in the western part of the country, the North and South Kumkol fields in the south central area, and the Akshabulak field in the central area. These 8 fields accounted for about 80 percent of liquids production in the country in 2008. Oil production in 2010 is projected at 1.6 Mmbbl/d.
- KMG is now the second largest oil producer in Kazakhstan after the Chevron-led Tengizchevroil consortium, in which KMG has a 20 percent interest. In August 2010, KMG announced its plans to raise its oil and condensate production to 480,000 bbl/d by 2014, up from 380,000 bbl/d in 2009. Oil liquids production growth is largely dependent on performance at the 3 largest fields, Tengiz, Kashagan, and Karachaganak.
- Largest Currently Producing Oil Fields
- The Tengiz Oil Field is currently Kazakhstan's largest producing oil field, with recoverable crude oil reserves estimated at 6-9 billion barrels by consortium leader Chevron. It is located onshore northwestern Kazakhstan and produced 377,000 bbl/d of crude oil in 2008, rising to 492,000 bbl/d of crude oil as well as 38,000 bbl/d of condensate in 2009, according to Chevron.
- It is the world's deepest operating giant field at 12,000 feet and has been in development since 1993 by the Tengizchevroil (TCO) joint venture, a 40-year, US$20 billion agreement between Chevron (50percent), ExxonMobil (25percent), KMG (20percent), and LukArco (5percent) signed with the Kazakh government. Production could increase to 800,000 bbl/d by 2016.
- Tengiz output is currently exported through the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) oil pipeline, which runs from Tengiz to Novorossiysk, Russia on the Black Sea.
- Karachaganak Oil and Gas Field, also onshore northwestern Kazakhstan close to the Russian border, produced 231,000 bbl/d of condensate in 2009, about the same as in 2008. According to Karachaganak Petroleum Operating (KPO), the field holds reserves of around 8-9 billion barrels of oil and gas condensate and 47 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
- The field is operated by the KPO consortium under a PSA signed in 1997 to develop the field for 40 years. KPO includes Agip and BG, (each 32.5percent), Chevron (20percent), and Lukoil (15percent). In August 2010, the Kazakh government and KPO were reportedly negotiating a stake for KMG in the only major oil and gas project in the country without KMG participation. A pipeline connection to the Tengiz-Novorossisk pipeline allows KPO to export its condensate output through Russia. Karachaganak's Phase 3 development program, aimed at increasing condensate output, is reported on hold due to delays in upgrading and expanding the Orenburg processing plant in Russia.
- Uzen Oil Field, located in southwestern Kazakhstan in the Mangistau region, produced 134,000 bbl/d in 2008. It is 100 percent owned by KMG and has been in operation since 1961. Rehabilitation of the Uzen field and development of the adjacent Karamandybas field is aimed at increasing production. Reserves are estimated at 1.35 billion barrels.
- Mangistau Oil Field, in the same region, produced 115,000 bbl/d in 2009. It has reserves estimated at 500 million barrels and is operated jointly by KMG and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).
- Aktobe Oil Field in northwestern Kazakhstan produced 120,000 bbl/d in 2009, and holds estimated reserves of over 1 billion barrels of oil. CNPC acquired a 60.3 percent stake in 1997 as a result of agreements between the Kazakh and Chinese governments, and another 25.12 percent share was sold to CNPC in 2003 by KMG. Since 1997, oil production has more than doubled and CNPC's target of 200,000 bbl/d production is expected to be reached by early 2011. All oil output is exported to China through a link from the CPC pipeline to the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline.
- North and South Kumkol each produced about 65,000 bbl/d in 2008. The South Kumkol Oil Fieldare shared by CNPC (66.7 percent) and KMG (33.3 percent). The North Kumkol Oil Field are shared 50-50 by Lukoil and CNPC. These fields are located in south central Kazakhstan, from where the oil is exported via the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline to China.
- Akshabulak and surrounding fields in central Kazakhstan produced 63,000 bbl/d in 2008 and are operated jointly by KMG and Petro Kazakhstan. Oil from this field is transported to the Kumkol area by pipeline for export.
- Fields Under Development
- The Kashagan Oil Field, believed to be the largest known oil field outside the Middle East and the fifth largest in the world in terms of reserves, is located off the northern shore of the Caspian Sea near the city of Atyrau.
- The consortium that was developing the field, the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company (Agip KCO) was replaced in January 2009 by the North Caspian Operating Company (NCOC), which includes Kashagan and other fields in the area, such as Aktote, Kairan, and Kalamkas. The NCOC PSA is led by Total, Eni, ExxonMobil, Shell, and KMG, each with a 16.8-percent share, ConocoPhillips with an 8.4-percent share, and Inpex at 7.6 percent. In July 2010, KMG and Shell signed an agreement to jointly manage production when the field comes online.
- The field's recoverable reserves are estimated at 11 billion barrels of oil. The timetable for production startup has been pushed back to October 2013, some 8 years after the original scheduled startup date of 2005. Initial production from phase 1 is projected at 370,000 to 450,000 bbl/d, with peak production of 1.5 Mmbbl/d from phase 2 projected for 2019.
- Much of the repeated delays have been due to cost overruns associated with the field's adverse operating environment. The Kashagan field presents particular challenges for its developers: it contains a high proportion of natural gas under very high pressure, the oil contains large quantities of sulfur, and the offshore platforms require construction that can withstand the extreme weather fluctuations in the northern Caspian Sea. Because the Kashagan field lies in only 3 to 5 meters of water, drilling and extraction operations will proceed from artificial islands. The timing of phase 2 will also determine the timing of construction of new refining and export capability at Kuryk. Existing pipelines to Russia and China will only be able to handle phase 1 output.
- The Kurmangazy Oil Field, located in the Caspian Sea on the maritime border between Russia and Kazakhstan, is the least developed of Kazakhstan's oil field projects. Russian and Kazakh state oil firms Rosneft and KMG signed a joint development deal in 2005. The first 2 wells were drilled in 2006 but came up dry, and although further drilling is planned, it has been repeatedly postponed. According to an October 2010 news report, the exploration contract between Russia and Kazakhstan is to be renewed.
- Kazakhstan crudes are mostly light sweet crudes
- Kazakhstan's most widely sold crude is the CPC Blend Crude Oil a light acidic crude
- Other crudes include Kumkol Crude Oil, and Tengiz Crude Oil
Current Export Oil Pipelines
- Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC)
- The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) oil pipeline was commissioned in 2001 and runs 940 miles from the Tengiz oil field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. The consortium's 4 largest shareholders are: Transneft (24 percent), KMG (19 percent), Chevron (15 percent), and LukArco (12.5 percent).
- The pipeline consists of refurbished Soviet-era pipeline links along the Caspian and newly constructed components along the line. According to Chevron, it transported an average of 743,000 bbl/d of crude in 2009, which included 597,000 bbl/d of Kazakh oil, mainly from the Tengiz and Karachaganak fields, and 146,000 bbl/d of Russian oil. In addition, approximately 9,000 bbl/d was discharged at Atyrau for loading into rail cars.
- In late 2008, CPC members agreed on a plan to expand capacity on the pipeline to 1.34 million bbl/d by 2013, but a delay in the final investment decision to the fourth quarter of 2010 due to technical complications moved the completion date to mid-2014. The expansion project involves the construction of 10 additional pumping stations, replacement of some pipeline sections, and 6 new oil storage tanks at Novorossiysk.
- Kazakhstan-China Pipeline
- The Kazakhstan China Oil Pipeline spans 1,384 miles, running from Atyrau port in northwestern Kazakhstan to Alashankou in China's northwest Xinjiang region, and has a capacity of and is reportedly currently transporting 200,000 bbl/d of crude. It is a joint venture between CNPC and KMG. In 2009, China reportedly received 61 million bbl/d through the pipeline, or 4 percent of China's crude imports.
- The pipeline was built in segments, the most recently completed segment, the 492-mile Kenkiyak-Kumkol (Phase 3) started commercial operations on October 6, 2009, and connects the Kenkiyak-Atyrau pipeline (Phase 1) to the Atasu-Alashankou pipeline (Phase 2), online since 2006.
- The pipeline is currently supplied from the Aktobe Oil Field and Kumkol fields. The cross-border section connects to CNPC/PetroChina’s crude oil pipeline system in northwest China. Phase 1, the Kenkiyak-Atyrau pipeline, was the first oil pipeline built in Kazakhstan since independence.
- This line was tied into the Kazakhstan-China pipeline and its direction of flow was reversed, now running from Atyrau to Kenkiyak.
- In October 2009, CNPC and KMG signed a framework agreement to double the pipeline capacity to 400,000 bbl/d by 2013 under a second phase of development. Upon future expansion, it will also carry oil from the Kashagan Oil Field.
- Atyrau-Samara Pipeline
- Kazakhstan's other major oil export pipeline, the Atyrau-Samara Oil Pipeline, is a northbound link to Russia's Transneft distribution system, which provides Kazakhstan with a connection to world markets via the Black Sea. The line was upgraded in 2009 by the addition of pumping and heating stations and currently has a capacity of approximately 600,000 bbl/d. Before the completion of the CPC pipeline, Kazakhstan exported almost all of its oil through this system.
- The Baku Tbilisi Ceyhan Pipeline is a 1 million bbl/d capacity line in neighboring Azerbaijan, which came online in 2006. Kazakhstan has a contract with Azerbaijan and the BTC Pipeline Company to supply up to 500,000 bbl/d of oil via the BTC pipeline. Kazakh oil supplies were loaded into the BTC for re-export for the first time in October 2008. Oil supplies are delivered by tanker across the Caspian to Baku.
- Trans Caspian Transportation, Current and Future
- Currently, Kazakhstan ships oil by tanker to Baku and from there it goes either into the BTC pipeline or by rail to Batumi, Georgia. Reportedly, 100,000 bbl/d of oil was being shipped across the Caspian in 2009.
- Trans-Caspian shipments to Baku are to eventually reach 500,000 bbl/d in accordance with the October 2009 agreement between Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. To facilitate exports of oil from the Kashagan oil field during the next decade, Kazakhstan is currently developing the Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System (KCTS), which includes the construction of a 454-mile, 500,000 bbl/d capacity onshore pipeline from Eskene in western Kazakhstan to Kuryk on the Caspian near Aqtau, where a new 760,000-bbl/d oil terminal is to be built. This system also includes a maritime link to Baku, Azerbaijan and the creation of a new fleet of tankers; new port facilities, and a transfer station in Baku, where the crude oil will be put into an expanded BTC pipeline to Turkey. Under current plans, KMG will hold 51 percent of the pipeline while the international companies developing Kashagan will hold 49 percent. The maritime link will be held by a joint venture between KMG and Azerbaijan's SOCAR. In October 2010, it was reported that the KCTS system is to be postponed as it will not be needed until 2018-2019, which is now when Kashagan's second phase is expected.
- Kazakhstan had a crude oil distillation capacity of 345,100 bbl/d as of January 1, 2010, according to the Oil and Gas Journal. There are 3 major oil refineries: Pavlodar Refinery, Atyrau Refinery, and Shymkent Refinery. Kazakhstan reportedly processed an average of 232,900 bbl/d between January and September 2009, according to Nefte Compass. Kazakhstan consumed an average of 240,000 bbl/d in 2009.
- The refinery at Pavlodar is supplied mainly by a crude oil pipeline from western Siberia, since Russian supplies are well placed geographically to serve that refinery; the Atyrau refinery runs solely on domestic crude from northwest Kazakhstan; and the Shymkent Refinery currently uses oil from the oil fields at Kumkol and the nearby area in central Kazakhstan.
- The Shymkent refinery is operated by Petrokazakhstan, which is 33-percent owned by KMG and 67-percent owned by CNPC. Petrokazakhstan is the second largest foreign-owned oil producer and the largest manufacturer and supplier of oil products in the country. It is currently involved in projects aimed at increasing the refining capacity and range of products at Shymkent. The company has a transportation and sales network that includes service stations in Kazakhstan and Cyprus.
- The Atyrau refinery is also undergoing improvement. In October 2009, KMG and Sinopec signed a contract for the construction of a new petrochemical processing facility at Atyrau, slated to be completed by 2013. The facility will allow the plant to extract benzene and other chemicals from oil and improve the quality of gasoline output.
- Despite being a significant oil exporter, Kazakhstan experiences regional and seasonal oil product shortages. Because most of the country's oil and gas is produced in the western part, its industrialized northern and southern regions, lacking pipeline connections to the western oil and gas fields, rely on imports from neighboring Russia and Uzbekistan, respectively. Until recently, the refining sector in Kazakhstan has not received the high levels of foreign direct investment that other parts of the oil sector have.
- Since domestic prices for refined products have remained low, oil producers have more incentive to export crude oil to international markets instead of refining it locally. KMG reportedly plans to invest up to US $4 billion to modernize its 3 refineries, beginning in 2011. In August 2010, KMG announced that it expects to fully meet domestic demand for petroleum products from its refineries by 2014 from its own increased production of oil and condensates. KMG controls 65 percent of Kazakhstan's oil transport routes and all of its natural gas pipelines. It is also the leading fuels distributor and retailer in the country.
- EIA, Kazakhstan
- ENI, Kazakhstan
- BG Group Kazakhstan
- Google Earth Map of the oil and gas infrastructure in Kazakhstan